The Second Triumvirate was a political association of convenience between three of Rome's most powerful figures: Mark Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian in the 1st century BCE. The Second Triumvirate between Mark Antony, Lepidus and Octavian, becomes the turning point of Augustus’s rule in 43-33 BC. Caesar was instrumental in bringing about the alliance in his attempt to increase his political p Antony remained in the east to bring Brutus and Cassius' former territories under triumvirate control. Octavian's colleague in the consulate that year, his cousin (and nephew of Caesar), Quintus Pedius, died before the proscriptions got underway. However, the egos of these three men would soon clash, they would eventually meet in battle and, as a result, a single emperor would emerge. Last modified April 18, 2016. The conflict led to the Perusine War, in which Lucius gathered an army of supporters to challenge Octavian. The First lasted from approximately 59 BC to Crassus' defeat by the Parthians in 53 BC. They believed they no longer had a voice as Rome was quickly coming under the control of a would-be tyrant. Meanwhile, Antony was preparing his war against Parthia, taking advantage of divisions caused by the new Parthian king Phraates IV. In Roman history, the word is used to refer to two groups After his death, the Republic was thrown into disarray, and out of its ashes arose three men to form a unique union - a Second Triumvirate - with the sole intent of salvaging the government. He believed her money would help fund a war against Octavian. After being captured in Gaul and beheaded, his head was sent to Antony. The Second Triumvirate was an official body created in 43 B.C., known as Triumviri Rei Publicae Constituendae Consulari Potestate. This became a broad pattern of the Triumvirate's two terms; during the ten years of the Triumvirate (43 BC to 33 BC), there were 42 consuls in office, rather than the expected 20. Cicero); The years 59–53 BCE were defined by the political dominance of Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus under an unofficial alliance known as the First Triumvirate. The Second Triumvirate years were filled with a variety of battles between the three men. Wasson, Donald L. "Second Triumvirate." Octavian, despite his youth (20 years old), extorted from the Senate the post of suffect consul (consul suffectus) for 43 BC. After the assassination of step father of Augustus, Julius Caesar, in March of 44 BCE, the first emperor created an alliance with Caesar’s close friend and relative, Mark Antony. Antony met Cleopatra VII of Egypt, the former lover of Caesar; their love would lead to war. With the complete defeat of Antony and the marginalisation of Lepidus, Octavian, having been restyled "Augustus" in 27 BC, remained as the sole master of the Roman world, and proceeded to establish the Principate as the first Roman "emperor". Some believe Octavian had tried to keep his name off the list, but his writings (his Philippics condemning Antony) had not won him any favors. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Wasson, Donald L. "Second Triumvirate." In 43 BCE, as he sat outside Rome with his army and demanded the Senate grant him the political authority he needed, that is, a consulship. Triumvirate comes from the Latin word TRIVMVIR, which means a group of three men. The First Triumvirate (60–53 BC) was an informal alliance among three prominent politicians in the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Marcus Licinius Crassus.. The triumvirate was formally recognized by the Senate in the Lex Titia in November of 43 BCE, granting the trio supreme authority for five years (until January 1, 37 BCE), and assigning them the important task of hunting down the conspirators, especially Brutus and Cassius. At the foundation of the Triumvirate (43 BC). According to Appian, Sextus hoped to replace Lepidus as the third triumvir, but instead he was confirmed in possession of the islands by the Pact of Misenum, in return agreeing to stop his piracy. Immediately, the Lex Pedia was enacted - a decree that reversed an earlier ruling which had granted the conspirators immunity. It ended the effort by Marcus Tullius Cicero to make the Senate once again the top body of the Republic. Following the assassination of Julius Caesar the three vowed revenge on his killers and attempted to stabilise the Roman Republic in what would turn out to be its death throes. Soldiers loyal to Octavian entered the Senate with sword in hand; the Senate wisely reversed an earlier decision and awarded him the consulship along with his cousin Quintus Pedius as co-consul. The Second Triumvirate consisted of Octavian (Augustus), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. This is a direct result of the Second Triumvirate’s lack of involvement in the direct issues affecting Rome and the Republic long before the inception of this political coalition between Octavian, Antony and Lepidus. This was purely theoretical, as they were controlled by, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Common Legend Abbreviations on Roman Coins", "American Journal of Numismatics (Second Series)...", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Triumvirate&oldid=991657798, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2015, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles needing additional references from November 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. He was Augustus, the first emperor of the new Roman Empire. The Second Triumvirate lasted for only ten years. With Lepidus in Sicily, Octavian and Antony crossed the Adriatic Sea and met the two conspirators at Philippi in eastern Macedonia to do battle. Despite the agreement, conflicts continued. This article is about the Roman political alliance between, From left to right, Mark Antony, Octavian and Lepidus portrayed in Roman coins. At around the same time, Antony's wife Fulvia died. Later, Octavian reconsidered the pact, believing Pompey had betrayed him, and had the young commander captured and executed. The Second Triumvirate: Augustus, Marc Antony, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus... Tiberius: A Captivating Guide to the Life of Ancient Rome’s Second Emperor... Silver State Dreadnought: The Remarkable Story of Battleship Nevada, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The plot to murder Julius Caesar was a well-conceived scheme. Bust of Mark Antonyby Tataryn77 (Public Domain). He then arranged a meeting with Antony, who was planning to attack Parthia and needed troops. In October of 43 BCE Lepidus and Antony met Octavian near Bononia to form a triumvirate - a Constitutional Commission - with power similar to that of a consul. He emerged indecisive and morale was low, desertions high. Besides Cicero, another significant conspirator to die was Decimus who failed in his attempt to join Brutus in Macedonia. Octavian would eventually return to Rome a hero. In the first of the two battles fought he was driven out of his camp, and escaped...After the second and decisive one he showed no clemency to his beaten enemies… (56), According to Suetonius’s account, Brutus’s head was sent to Rome and thrown at the feet of “Caesar’s divine image.”, Colossal portrait of Augustusby Carole Raddato (CC BY-SA). [12] The proscription of Caesar's legate Quintus Tullius Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero's younger brother) seems to have been motivated by the perceived need to destroy Cicero's family. 48- The Second Triumvirate Cicero became one of the first victims of the triumvirate. In fact they both survived.[13]. Two of the conspirators, Brutus and Cassius (who some believe conceived the plot), escaped to the east. Antony's brother Lucius Antonius, who was serving as Consul, stood up for the dispossessed farmers. Donald has taught Ancient, Medieval and U.S. History at Lincoln College (Normal, Illinois)and has always been and will always be a student of history, ever since learning about Alexander the Great. Ancient History Encyclopedia. His hands which had written the derogatory essays were symbolically cut off while his head was decapitated and sent to Rome where it was nailed to the speaker’s platform in the Forum. This was the simple message the Roman commander... Colossal portrait of Augustus, 1st century CE. Humiliatingly, Lepidus' legions in Sicily defected to Octavian and Lepidus himself was forced to submit to him. The first objective of the new alliance was to kill all the political rivals and supporters of Caesar’… Jun 2, 2013 - Explore Magistra Michaud's board "Second Triumvirate", followed by 1000 people on Pinterest. Octavian himself resigned shortly after, allowing the appointment of a second pair of suffect consuls; the original consuls for the year, Caesar's legate Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus, had died fighting on the Senate's side of the first civil war to follow Caesar's death, that between the Senate and Mark Antony himself. He would assume authority far beyond the intent of the Senate, and as the emperor, Augustus would set the stage for all of those who followed him. Octavian accused Sextus of continuing to raid Italian towns. [20] This led to an ill-judged political move that gave Octavian the excuse he needed to remove Lepidus from power. On the Ides of March 44 BCE, the dictator-for-life met his fate. After initiating proscriptions to raise funds and purge their enemies, the Triumvirs headed east, where they defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. Antony detested Octavian and spent most of his time in the East, while Lepidus favoured Antony but felt himself obscured by both his colleagues, despite having succeeded Caesar as Pontifex Maximus in 43 BC. In 43 BC Marc Antony, Octavian and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate. Triumvirate means 3 men and refers to a group of three men who hold political power, regardless of whether or not the trio has been elected. Lepidus himself was left with nothing, but was offered the prospect of control over Africa. Suetonius wrote, Lepidus, the third member of the triumvirate, whom Augustus had summoned from Africa to his support, thought himself so important as the commander of twenty legions that...he violently demanded the highest place in the government. Even some of Caesar’s friends soon became his sworn enemies. In 39 BC Antony and Octavian decided to negotiate an agreement to stop the piracy. The Second Triumvirate was an alliance between Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus.It was formed to punish the conspirators who assassinated Julius Caesar.. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The Second Triumvirate was Ancient Rome's second three-man ruling committee and featured just as much internal squabbling as the First Triumvirate.. Antony and Cleopatra were trapped and supplies were short and winter was coming. Lepidus was consul in 42 BC, Antony in 34 BC, and Octavian in 33 BC. Government by triumvirs. All coins are inscribed "III VIR R P C", abbreviating. Despite his youth, the nineteen-year-old Octavian had the support of a significant portion of the army, especially those who had been loyal to Caesar. The assassins believed his death would resurrect the old Roman spirit and faith in the Republic would be restored. In addition, Lepidus, the third and most ineffective of the three, was named Chief Priest by Antony although the appointment was supposed to go to Octavian. They were added to the list because they had been the first to condemn Antony and Lepidus after the two allied. He firmly believed Antony was an enemy of the state and should have been killed alongside Caesar. by Mary Harrsch (Photographed at the Capitoline Museum) (CC BY-NC-SA). Narbonese Gaul was absorbed into Gallia Comata, creating a unified Gaul, and was thus taken over by Antony. Suicide was the only recourse for Antony, and when an attempt to reach a compromise with Octavian failed, Cleopatra took her life. Both took place during the so-called crisis of the Roman republic and decided on the division of power between influential politicians. Like the First Triumvirate, the Second Triumvirate was ultimately unstable and could not withstand internal jealousies and ambitions. Unlike the earlier First Triumvirate (between Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus),[3][4] the Second Triumvirate was an official, legally established institution, whose overwhelming power in the Roman state was given full legal sanction and whose imperium maius outranked that of all other magistrates, including the consuls. If he were proved innocent he would have Africa. Cite This Work Antony retained Cisalpine Gaul and hegemony over Gaul itself, and Octavian held Africa and was given nominal authority over Sicily and Sardinia. Now, Antony’s attentions were centered away from Octavia and on the Egyptian queen Cleopatra. Pompey's navy regularly intercepted Roman shipping, leading to problems with the grain supply. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the Roman statesman and poet, wrote a number of scathing essays against Antony. A triumvirate is a political office in which power is shared by three individuals. Formally called the Triumvirate for Organizing the Republic (Latin: tresviri rei publicae constituendae),[2] it was formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, and existed for two five-year terms, covering the period until 33 BC. Aside from the fact that Antony was not a capable naval commander, many of his officers were unhappy with Cleopatra’s appearance and input at council meetings. Oddly enough the trio would soon forge a unique alliance, and while a strong a discord existed, the three men were united in their desire to avenge Caesar’s death. This division would spell the end of the partnership. Written by Donald L. Wasson, published on 18 April 2016 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Antony detested Octavian and spent most of his time in the East, while Lepidus favoured Antony but felt himself obscured by both his colleagues, despite having succeeded Caesar as Pontifex Maximus in 43 BC. Octavian illegally obtained Antony's will in July 32 BC and exposed it to the Roman public: it promised substantial legacies to Antony's children by Cleopatra, and left instructions for shipping his body to Alexandria for burial. Although most accounts of the battle at Philippi have Octavian ill and not involved in the fight, the Roman historian Suetonius in his The Twelve Caesars related a different story. Triumvirate, Latin tresviri or triumviri, in ancient Rome, a board of three officials.There were several types: Tresviri capitales, or tresviri nocturni, first instituted about 289 bc, assisted higher magistrates in their judicial functions, especially those relating to crime and the civil status of citizens. As a result, the province of Cisalpine Gaul was absorbed into Italy. [17] This new distribution of power among the triumvirs was confirmed by the Treaty of Brundisium in September 40 BC. Books He was caught attempting to escape from his villa outside Naples. Executioners were sent out. This was contrary to their Roman belief concerning a woman’s role in politics (while women were recognized as citizens in Rome they were not permitted to participate in governmental affairs). Concerning the conspirators, the three had little intention of granting clemency to anyone and a public decree was soon issued, condemning 300 senators and over 2,000 Roman knights or equites. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. [16] Lepidus held Rome with two legions while Octavian left to gather his army, but Lucius defeated Lepidus, who was forced to flee to Octavian. Their narrow escape brought Antony to Libya and Cleopatra to Egypt. (124). The triumviri rei publicae constituendae ("board of three to reconstitute the state") accepted the powers of a dictator and took several measures. [9], In 44 BC, Lepidus' possession of the provinces of Hispania and Narbonese Gaul was confirmed, and he agreed to hand over 7 legions to Octavian and Antony to continue the struggle against Brutus and Cassius for eastern Roman territory; in the event of defeat, Lepidus' territories would provide a fall-back position. He had been warring with Antony and Lepidus in upper Italia, but in October 43 BC the three agreed to unite and seize power and so met near Bononia (now Bologna). Octavian arranged for Antony to marry his sister, Octavia, as a symbol of the renewed alliance. Mark Antony 82-30 BCE in sole command after Caesar’s death Boisterous, extravagant, at drinker A gambler (aleator) March 17th: the Senate’s comprimise Assassins granted immunity and provinces; Caesar’s acta were confirmed Senate trying to avoid civil war Civil war averted (temporarily) Urban plebs and the army loyal to Caesar however Caesar’s will: left land and…